Osteology: Estimating Femur Size from the Size of the Femoral Shaft Essay

University of Biological & Earth Sciences

BIEGN3005 Honours Job

March 2010

Scholar name: Stephen Dempsey

Boss name: Teacher Alan Turner

Estimating femur length in the diameter in the femoral base

Stephen Dempsey

BIEGN300 Accolades Project

Person Number: 343106

Submission Date: 5th 03 2010

Summary

Bone lengths can be used to give stature estimations in case of mysterious skeletal is still, an important device in forensic and bioarchaelogical cases. The place that the bones happen to be broken or fragmented, regression equations may be used to estimate total bone size from its pieces, which in turn may be used to estimate size. The aim of this kind of study was going to test a couple of new measurements of the femoral shaft to verify if they could be used as predictors of optimum femoral duration. The minimum transverse femoral shaft diameter and the minimum anterior-posterior femoral shaft where measured on a small sample of an archaeological population by Poulton, Cheshire, along with the optimum femur length for each test. Simple linear regression evaluation was performed and the benefits showed which the minimum transverse femoral base diameter correlated significantly in both guys (R2=. 635, p=0. 006) and females (R2=0. 88, p=≤0. 001) with maximum femur length. The minimum anterior-posterior femoral shaft diameter confirmed no significant correlation with maximum femur length. Consequently, regression equations were provided for the significant correlations. Additional research is required to validate the results and to improve the accuracy of the method.

1 ) Introduction

The role of any forensic anthropologist in forensic and archaeological cases is always to establish demographics (population affinity, age, sexual intercourse and stature), time as death and cause of loss of life from could be remains (Chibba et al, 2006). The usage of stature as a biological characteristic of personality can drastically contribute to the id of unidentified skeletal is still. Numerous regions of the skeleton have been accustomed to try and determine an individual's living height such as the upper limb bones (Rao et approach. 1989), reduced limb bone tissues (Trotter and Gleeson, 1952), the metatarsals (Cordiero ou al, 2009) and the skull (Ryan and Bidmos, 2007). Hauser ou al. (2005) provide a great review of earlier times research in regards to stature evaluation. One of the strategies used in the estimation of stature may be the formulation of regression equations from measurements of various bone lengths. Pearson (1899) was the first to derive regression equations intended for estimating stature, and since it has grown to be the method of choice among the majority of anthropologists. Many of the methods accustomed to approximate stature require complete or around complete bones, so as a result few research have been completed on imperfect or fragmentary bones (Bidmos, 2008). Forensic anthropologists are often confronted with fragmented bones and in these cases it is extremely hard to derive regression equations directly from cuboid length (Rao et ing. 1989). Wright and Vasquez (2003) point out the problems they faced in Guatemala by which they were generally unable to estimation stature from bone duration due to the fast deterioration of bone in the tropical environment. This is only one of many factors t the all too frequent recovery of broken or fragmented remains. Therefore it is beneficial to possess equations readily available for bone span or stature derived from measurements of small segments or landmarks around the chosen cuboid.

The femur is definitely the favoured bone of use amongst anthropologists in estimating prominence, due to its high correlation with height besides the fact that it is one of bone fragments most often retrieved (Simmons et al. 1990). A number of measurements of the femur have already been reported to have very good correlations with femur length. Many of these measurements focus on the proximal and distal ends of the femur such as the uppr epicondylar size, epicondylar breath, vertical throat diameter plus the...

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