Nigeria is the most populous nation in The african continent, accounting for about one-sixth of African populace. 1 The largest ethnic group in the north part, which can be about two-thirds of the country, is the Hausa-Fulani, majority of who also are Muslims. The Yoruba are the many numerous inside the southwest. More than half of the folks are Christians approximately a quarter happen to be Muslims, with the remainder subsequent mostly Photography equipment Traditional beliefs. 2 The predominantly Christian Igbo are the largest ethnic group in the southeast. You will discover at least 250 distinct ethnic organizations with their very own languages, ethnicities, and religious systems. a few Most Nigerians speaks more than one language. English language is the country's official terminology. It goes without saying that Nigeria is a pluralistic society. Even the simple fact of cultural diversity indicates multiplicity of religion and lifestyle. In spite of her plurality, the Constitution would not permit the prominence of any religion above others in State affairs. According to section 12 of the lates 1970s Constitution, the government of the Federation or in the State is prohibited from adopting any religion because state religious beliefs. 4 Regardless of this constitutional provision, the practical situation today presents a picture that is in variance while using constitutional conditions on this subject. The country provides continued to witness high-level of inter and intra-ethnic conflict and religion-induced physical violence which frustrates development.
Egungun Festival prior to Advent of Islam
In the evolving world of the Yoruba people of South Western Nigeria, one thing that remains constant is a close connection with their particular ancestors. The ancestral spirits are much more than just dead family, they perform an active position in the day to day life of the living. They are wanted for security and assistance, and are believed to possess the capability to punish all who have forgotten their very own familial jewelry. There are numerous methods the forefathers communicate with the living; one of the unique is their outward exhibition on earth in the form of masked state of mind known as Egungun. 1
The Egungun are masked men who represent the spirits from the living-dead. Some say that they derive their particular name from the Yoruba expression for " bones” or " skeleton”, yet in respect to Babayemi, the correct pronunciation of the phrase in Yoruba means " masquerade”. a couple of It materializes in a robed figure which can be designed specially to give the impression that the departed is making a temporary reappearance on earth. several This impression is increased by the full coverage of the individual. According to Farrow, it can be absolutely essential not a single compound of the human form should be visible; for if this kind of rule can be broken, the person wearing the gown must pass away (presumably because an impostor! ), and every woman present must truly die. 4 Having any contact at all with an Egungun can be deadly for both the Egungun plus the person engaged, to guide against this a whip is often transported to drive people away. " Should he do so very slightly (e. g. in case the wind brought on his dress to barely touch the garment of any normal man, girl or child) he would be placed to loss of life, together with the person whom he touched, or perhaps by to whom he was handled, and so would every woman present”. 5 Nevertheless , it should be noted this policies include changed seeing that British colonization, there is still great admiration for the mysterious Egungun.
Before the creation of Islam, it would have been unthinkable for any girl to study the Egungun. Christian missionaries from your end of the nineteenth century, such as Stephen Farrow, reported that, " any woman known to have found the secret with the Egungun, Denaro, or Eluku, was offer death without mercy. 6 However , Yoruba woman today are no longer ruled out from taking part in Egungun rituals, they now perform active functions in some with the secret Egungun cults. Actually there include even been visiting girl scholars, such as Margaret Thomson Drewal, who've been afforded the chance...
References: a few. E. N. Idowu, Olodumare: God in Yoruba Perception. London: Longman, 1962. s. 208
some. S. T
7. Interview with N. O. Fagbemi (75 years), at Oluyori's compound, twentieth May, 2012.
8. M. T. Drewal, Yoruba Routine: Performers, Perform, Agency, and African Approach to Thought, Bloomingt: Indiana UP, 1992. pp. 91-92.
being unfaithful. Interview with chief Adiatu, Oloya of Iwoland, by Oloya's sectors, 20th May, 2012.
18. Interview with chief Apesinola, Oluawo of Ogboni Culture, at Alaadorun's Compound, Iwo. 26th Mar, 2012.
twenty-one. Interview with S. N. Dawodu, (73 years), at Ikoyi Substance, 11th Summer, 2012.
twenty two. Interview with C. I actually. Falodun (52 years), in Morodo Chemical substance Iwo, 13th June, 2012.
24. T. O. Awolalu and G. A. Dopamu, West Africa Traditional Religious beliefs, Ibadan: Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2005. p. 167.
35. Interview with I. H. Bamidele (60 years), for Tarapin's mixture Iwo, 15th June, 2012.
35. Interview with S i9000. O. Ayandele (60years) for Doodu's Substance, 25th 06, 2012.